Types of manipulation

Types of manipulation

1) Direct interference with the natural course of a sports competition

2) Modification of an athlete’s identity or personal information

3) Influencing the nature course or outcome of a sports competition

The above types of manipulation (1-3) can then be further classified by criteria such as who is responsible for the manipulation and which are his motives, more specifically: 


A) Exploitation of governance

B) Exploitation of power or influence

C) External influencers

D) Opportunistic

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